The Use of Knowledge in Society

Posted by on Ene 16, 2010 in Blog, Economía | 0 comments

El siguiente es un artículo de Friedrich Hayek publicado en el American Economic Review en 1945. Es, probablemente el artículo más influyente de este economista y uno que plantea un tema de mucha actualidad sobre el conocimento y la información. What is the problem we wish to solve when we try to construct a rational economic order? On certain familiar assumptions the answer is simple enough. If we possess all the relevant information, if we can start out from a given system of preferences, and if we command complete knowledge of available means, the problem which remains is purely one of logic. That is, the answer to the question of what is the best use of the available means is implicit in our assumptions. The conditions which the solution of this optimum problem must satisfy have been fully worked out and can be stated best in mathematical form: put at their briefest, they are that the marginal rates of substitution between any two commodities or factors must be the same in all their different uses. This, however, is emphatically not the economic problem which society faces. And the economic calculus which we have developed to solve this logical problem, though an important step toward the solution of the economic problem of society, does not yet provide an answer to it. The reason for this is that the “data” from which the economic calculus starts are.never for the whole society “given” to a single mind which could work out the implications and can never be so given. The peculiar character of the problem of a rational economic order is determined precisely by the fact that the knowledge of the circumstances of which we must make use never exists in concentrated or integrated form but solely as the dispersed bits of incomplete and frequently contradictory knowledge which all the separate individuals possess. The economic problem of society is thus not merely a problem of how to allocate “given” resources–if “given” is taken to mean given to a single mind which deliberately solves the problem set by these “data.” It is rather a problem of how to secure the best use of resources known to any of the members of society, for ends whose relative importance only these individuals know. Or, to put it briefly, it is a problem of the utilization of knowledge which is not given to anyone in its totality. This character of the fundamental problem has, I am afraid, been obscured rather than illuminated by many of the recent refinements of economic theory, particularly by many of the uses made of mathematics. Though the problem with which I want primarily to deal in this paper is the problem...

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Dos Poetas. Pasión y razón

Posted by on Ene 9, 2010 in Blog, Poesía | 0 comments

NERUDA (Septiembre 1973) Neftali Ricardo Reyes, chileno.Luchador y poeta comunistaCon amores y odios a la vistade todos los presentes. Hombre bueno. Su universo sin Dios estaba llenoDe dolor y de vida. Fue alquimista,probó en su cuerpo (Y nos dejo la lista)Todos los néctares y los venenos. Cantó su angustia por lo que veíaBuscó un amor que levantara vueloEntre prejuicios y filosofíasSintió lo injusto como su desvelo Ha muerto el Capitán la luz del díaBrinda tributo al calentar su suelo. BORGES (junio 1986) Cifrando laberintos de palabrasTanteando desatar encantamientosBuscando la unidad en los fragmentosY la verdad en un abracadabras. Heráclito fluyó, dejó que abraSu cuerpo al devenir de los momentosTanteando en ese río de estamentosAto el arte y la ciencia con palabras. Ciego como Homero; ciego y vidente.Tras el bastón, la flema y la ironíaSe hallaba la mayor filantropía, El amor del que sabe, del que sienteAl hombre y a su inútil fantasíaDe pasados, futuros y...

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